Periodontics is a branch of dentistry that deals with soft and hard tissue inflammation diseases and treatment surrounding teeth and implants. The purpose of periodontics treatment is regeneration of tissue lost due to disease, creating a functional and permanent tooth line. Periodontology means the science of the surrounding tissues of the tooth.
These surrounding structures are:
-Cement forming the outermost part of the root of the tooth,
-Bone tissue that forms around the root of the tooth,
-Consists for fiber that connects between the root part of the tooth and the bone.
What is healthy gum like?
Healthy gums look like light pink and orange peel. Healthy gum does not bleed during brushing and pocket depth should be 1-3 mm. If the pocket depth is larger, that gum is not healthy.
What are gum diseases?
Periodontal diseases is a disease that affects the gums and surrounding tissues that support the teeth. It is a devastating and chronic disease. Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic infections. It is responsible for 70% of tooth loss in adult people. They are treated easily and successfully in early diagnoses. With the prevention or treatment of gum diseases, patients protect their natural teeth, chew more easily and perform more easily digestion.
Gum disease begins with gingivitis. Gingivitis is the first and early period or periodontal disease. Early gingivitis may not produce many symptoms and, if left untreated, progresses to periodontitis. In the periodontitis, irreversible damage may occur to the alveol bone surrounding the gum. A periodontal pocket is formed between the tooth and the gum. This pocket facilitates the infection and disease to progress. As disease progresses, the teeth begin to sway and tooth extraction may occur.
What are the symptoms of gum disease?
-Bleeding while brushing teeth
-Red, swollen and tender gums
-Bad breath (halitosis)
-Swinging in the teeth
Why does the gum get sick?
The most important reason is bacterial dental plaque. This plaque is a sticky and colorless layer. Brushing and flossing twice a day prevents plaque formation. If the plaque is not removed from the tooth, tartar is formed on the surface of the teeth. Toxins released by the bacteria contained in this bacterial dental plaque trigger disease in the gum. Due to these toxins, the fibers that firmly connect the gum to the tooth are damaged and the gums moves away from tooth and periodontal pocket is formed. This makes it easier for bacteria and toxins to reach deeper gum tissues. Pocket deepens as the disease progresses. Bacteria move deeper into the bone, and destruction begins in the alveol bone surrounding the tooth. If the disease is not treated the tooth is shaken and pulled.
How to protect against gum disease?
Personal dental care is important. Teeth should be brushed and flossed twice a day, mouthwash or intermediate brush should be used after the teeth are brushed before going to bed in the evening. Regular dental checkup is essential for early diagnosis.
Gum disease in smokers and diabetics
Smoking causes an increase in gum disease and late recovery after treatment. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, gum disease increase rate is high and recovery is late.
Gum disease in pregnancy
Gum disease affects the systematic situation in pregnancy and it has negative effects on the fetus. Periodontal disease increases the risk of premature birth and miscarriage. Changes in estrogen progesterone hormone during pregnancy increase the risk of periodontal disease.
For the health of the mother and baby, the mother needs to correct the current oral health.
Routine dental procedure during pregnancy are more suitable in the second trimester. The period of pregnancy is not important for emergency treatment and can be done immediately. Only a consultation from an obstetrician is required. In the third trimester, Vena Cava may be pressured due to the position. The pregnant patient should be positioned inclined to the left, the position should be changed continuously and appointments should be short. There is a relationship between pregnancy and gum disease so dental treatments must be completed before pregnancy.
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